Putting the Dr. Between You and Google

Posted on: March 16, 2015

Jina-Huh

Often when people get sick or need health information, they turn to the Internet for answers, with health searches being one of the most popular uses of the Internet today. This high demand for health information, coupled with the rising popularity in social networking, has resulted in the creation of many online health communities that offer users the opportunity to interact with others who are dealing with the same disease or health issues.

These peer-patient conversations can be helpful for learning about patients' personal experiences managing their illness, but what they currently lack are clinical moderators and the insight from clinical experts on more clinically oriented information.

Jina Huh, Assistant Professor in the Department of Media and Information, is working to solve this issue and has been awarded a National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine Career Development Award (K01) to develop a semi-automated system that would infuse clinical expertise into peer-patient conversations in online health communities. The system will aid patient self-management by delivering balanced information from patients' personal experiences and clinical expertise. The three-year, $467,801 grant began in October 2014.

"In face-to-face patient support groups, clinicians moderate patients who share their experiences so they can clarify clinical questions and answer any questions patients might have," Huh said. "From the patient's perspective, they not only get other peer-patient experiences, but also clinical expertise from the clinical moderators. But in the online community setting, that sort of support group dynamic between patients and moderators is missing.

"My proposal is to develop a system that would enable that social dynamic present in face-to-face settings to be augmented in online settings."

Huh has conducted a number of studies with health professionals looking at when such a system should step in.

"They just want the system to interject when there are medical terms being used that indicate any symptoms or treatments, such as 'numbness' or 'severe pain,'" Huh said.

During the first year of the grant, Huh will develop the training data set to train the machine to learn how to classify the patients' posts and find out when the machine can intervene. The second year, she will work on the user interface and develop a feedback mechanism so users can give feedback to the machine's results and the way the machine works with users. Over the third year, Huh plans to deploy a working prototype.

Huh serves as a Trifecta Intellectual Leader (TIL) for the Trifecta initiative, which fosters interdisciplinary research by building relationships among experts in three MSU colleges – Communication Arts and Sciences, Engineering, and Nursing – to collaboratively advance the delivery of health services to underserved populations.

"The grant reviewers really liked that MSU offers this Trifecta initiative and that I am a Trifecta faculty. They noted this as part of the positive reviews for the grant," Huh said. "Because of this, they thought that MSU is a very good environment for me to conduct this research."

Huh's mentors on the project include Professor Wanda Pratt, the Information School, University of Washington (mentor chair); University Distinguished Professor Barbara Given, MSU College of Nursing; and Professor Joyce Chai, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, MSU College of Engineering. Consultants on the project are Associate Professor Marianne Huebner, Department of Statistics and Probability, MSU College of Natural Science; Associate Professor of Nursing Amber Vermeesch, University of Portland, Oregon; and John Crowley, Vice President of Consumer Marketing an Online Communities, Alliance Health.

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Poor Decision Making Can Lead to Cybersecurity Breaches

Posted on: February 15, 2015

Rick Wash mainRecent high-profile security breaches, such as those at Target, Anthem Inc. and Sony Pictures, have attracted scrutiny to how the seemingly minor decisions of individuals can have major cybersecurity consequences.

In a presentation at this year's meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), one of the largest science gatherings in the world, Assistant Professor Rick Wash discussed how social interactions affect the processes behind personal cybersecurity decision making.

"We all have small supercomputers in our pockets now," said Wash, who has a joint appointment in the School of Journalism and the Department of Media and Information. "Regular people like you and I make a lot of important security decisions on a daily basis."

He said the Sony hack is a great example of smart people making poor choices.

"A lot of people were making bad decisions, sharing passwords, etc., that led to this event," Wash said. "But what's the reasoning process behind these decisions?"

Wash's research shows that how people visualize and conceptualize hackers and other cyber criminals affects their cybersecurity decision making. As people make personal assessments about the risks of their behaviors, these impressions – formed from the influence of media, interpersonal interactions and storytelling – have a great impact.

"People tend to focus on a picture they have in their head when conceptualizing hackers and virus makers," Wash said. "I have found two of these pictured individuals to be the most common and easily recognizable: The teenager on a computer in their parents' basement or the professional criminal in a foreign country. Those who picture the teenager tend to make better decisions in cybersecurity."

He said people's familiarity with the concept of a teenage mischief-maker allows them to readily visualize that person as a legitimate threat, and act accordingly. Those who visualize a foreign hacker believe they are professionals and are more likely to focus on more lucrative targets.

By identifying the social behaviors and rationales behind the decision-making process, this research can in turn help to influence effectiveness in the development of the science of cybersecurity.

Wash's presentation was part of a panel of six researchers exploring the social aspects of cybersecurity. The panel, organized by Indiana University, was titled "Holistic Computing Risk Assessment: Privacy, Security and Trust."

"We're all looking beyond the technological issues," Wash said. "It's about people and society and how it all comes together."

AAAS is the world's largest general science society. Its annual meeting brings together thousands of scientists, engineers, policymakers, educators and journalists to present new research and developments in science and technology. This year's conference was Feb. 12-16 in San Jose, Calif.

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O'Donnell Releases First Book on Secret World of Game Creators

Posted on: December 9, 2014

Casey ODonnell Book mainMedia and Information Assistant Professor Casey O'Donnell just released his first book, "Developer's Dilemma: The Secret World of Videogame Creators," where he examines the creative collaborative practice of game developers and takes readers behind the scenes of the gaming industry, pulling back the curtain on the world of game creators.

"Developer's Dilemma" delves into the technical practice of game developers and why they work the way they do in the gaming industry. O'Donnell said he was inspired to write the book to give credit to those who work the long hours to design and develop video games, adding that some people don't understand that the industry is more than just playing video games.

"I think one of the most important things the book will do is contribute to what game design looks like," O’Donnell said. "There's no reason game development needs to be a secret."

Casey ODonnell Book mainDrawing on extensive fieldwork at game studios in the United States and India, O'Donnell describes the book as an ethnography that took three and a half years of research. He spent time interviewing video game artists, programmers and studio heads. His primary focus was a studio called Vicarious Visions located in New York.

The book describes the process of video game development from pre-production through production, considering such aspects as experimental systems, "socially mandatory" overtime, and the perpetual start-up machine that exhausts young, initially enthusiastic workers.

Mimicking the structure of the video game Super Mario Bros., the book is divided into eight "worlds," or chapters, within which are levels and each world ending with a boss fight, or a "rant" about lessons learned and tools mastered.

"It's an academic text, but I tried to make it more accessible," O'Donnell said, admitting that the text is "goofy and playful" in some parts. "I don’t always take an academic tone."

O’Donnell is an independent game developer himself, having released his first independent game, "Osy," in February 2011.

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Research to Gather Data on Adolescents with Type-1 Diabetes

Posted on: October 22, 2014

Bree Holtz mainBree Holtz, Adjunct Research Professor in Media and Information, is leading a team of researchers recently awarded nearly $9,000 in project funds from the MSU-Sparrow Center for Innovation and Research (CFIR) to support focus groups in gathering baseline data on adolescents with Type-1 diabetes (T1D). The data will be used to prepare a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant Proposal, titled "Using an mHealth app to transition care of Type-1 diabetes from parents to teens."

Focus groups and interviews will include adolescents with T1D, parents of children with T1D diabetes, and pediatric diabetes nurses who care for T1D children and adolescents. The goal is to better identify what characterizes the transition period between parent management and self-management, what the biggest challenges are, what communication is like between parents and children, and what a proposed mobile phone app could do to aid in that transition.

"Being able to gather this pilot data will provide a better perspective on what it is like for both parents and adolescents during this time and where an app will be able to help," said Holtz, who received her Ph.D. in Media and Information Studies from Michigan State. "The ability to have this preliminary data and additional resources during the grant preparation will significantly improve the quality of our grant proposal."

T1D affects about 3 million people in the United States. Each year more than 15,500 children from birth to age 19 are diagnosed with the disease. T1D typically presents when the patient is a child and the parents play an active role in the management of the disease. As these children mature, however, they must learn how to care for and manage the disease on their own.

Holtz's team includes CAS faculty members Shelia Cotten, Professor of Media and Information, and Amanda Holmstrom, Associate Professor of Communication, as well as MSU Assistant Professor of Nursing Denise Soltow Hershey and Dr. Michael Wood, a pediatric endocrinologist at Sparrow Hospital, and Julie Dunneback, an Advanced Practice Nurse who specializes in pediatric endocrinology at Sparrow Hospital.

The Center for Innovation and Research, created as a major joint initiative between MSU and Sparrow, aims to seek new projects to continuously improve care and deliver patient-centered, evidence-based best practice care to individuals who receive care at Sparrow.

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Study on Internet Use and Quality of Life Presented Sept. 18

Posted on: September 16, 2014

Shelia Cotten main 2Shelia Cotten, Professor in the Department of Media and Information, led an interdisciplinary research team that conducted a five-year randomized controlled trial with older adults in assisted and independent living communities designed to teach them how to use computers and the Internet. Over the course of this study, more than 300 older adults in 19 assisted and independent living communities were trained on Internet and computer use.

A presentation on this research, titled "The Relationship Between Internet Use and Quality of Life Among Older Adults in Assisted and Independent Living Communities," will take place Thursday, Sept. 18, at 4 p.m. in Room 145 of the Communication Arts and Sciences Building. The presentation is part of the Media and Information Studies (MIS) Ph.D. Program Research Seminar Series.

This research went beyond other work in this area by controlling the level of interaction among participants and researchers, in addition to the technology use.

The study shows that older adults in different types of living communities have the ability to cross the digital divide and become users of the Internet and that Internet use has beneficial aspects on varying aspects of quality of life for older adults, which Cotten will discuss in her talk.

Participants of this study were most likely to use the Internet for email and information searching, whereas social media use was very low.

"Older adults have concerns over privacy and disclosure of too much information in online environments. In addition, the average social networking site can be overwhelming to older adults," Cotten said. "There is too much information and too many types of information, much of which can be confusing to novice older adult users.

"While being able to connect with social network members via these sites could be beneficial for many older adults and their quality of life, currently the design of many of these sites does not appeal, nor is it conducive, to many older adults using them."

Funded by the National Institute on Aging, Cotten's research from this project has been published in the Journal of Applied Gerontology, Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), and Journal of Educational Gerontology, among others. She also will publish a book, which is under contract with CRC Press, a division of Taylor and Francis publishers.

Cotten is the Director of the Trifecta Initiative and Interim Director of the MSU-Sparrow Center for Innovation and Research. Her research focuses on technology use across the lifecourse and the social, educational and health impacts of that use. She conducts large-scale community based intervention studies designed to use technology to enhance various aspects of quality of life.

The MIS Ph.D. Program Research Seminar Series presents speakers drawn from MSU and other universities whose research should be of interest to MIS Ph.D. Program faculty and students. Speakers are a mix of faculty and graduate students who have completed their coursework and are doing independent research.

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Cotten Part of Team Studying Ways to Improve Alarm Safety

Posted on: September 8, 2014

Shelia Cotten main 2Shelia Cotten, Professor in the Department of Media and Information, is part of a research team studying ways to improve alarm safety, which is a health care priority across the nation.

The study will investigate alarm safety interventions in Sparrow Health System's Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (RNICU). As more monitoring equipment is used, there is an increase in alarms, which can result in alarm fatigue or desensitization, especially if the majority of alarms are false alarms or nuisance alarms.

"As technology continues to advance, we have more and more ways of monitoring our patients. With that monitoring comes alarms, and unfortunately, not all alarms are clinically relevant or helpful in the care of our patients," said Piper Probst, MSN, RN-BC, who is leading the research team and serves as the Director of Nursing Practice, Research and Outcomes for Sparrow. "For example, we sometimes will get a false alarm because a patient moves. Our goal is to decrease false alarms and nuisance alarms so most of the alarms our nurses hear are clinically relevant and help us provide safer and better care."

Throughout the country, alarm desensitization has been connected with delayed responses to alarms, failed responses to alarms, and in some instances the alarms were shut off.  Such conditions compromise patient safety, so The Joint Commission (TJC) has a new National Patient Safety Goal for 2014 to improve the safety of clinical alarm systems.

The research is being funded by a $25,000 award from the MSU and Sparrow Center for Innovation and Research. The funds will be used to test proven alarm safety interventions with neonatal monitoring equipment as there is less known about improving alarm safety in the neonatal care environment.

"The center was created to focus on high-priority translation projects that can be rapidly developed and deployed for the benefit of our patients," said Interim Director of the Center for Innovation and Research, Barbara Given, Ph.D., R.N., FAAN, MSU Distinguished Professor and Director of the Ph.D. Program, College of Nursing. "We hope this project will document effective strategies to improve alarm safety for this neonatal environment."

One part of the project involves surveying nurses in the NICU and other units at Sparrow. Cotten, who recently was named Interim Director of the Center for Innovation and Research, replacing Given, will serve as the survey design expert and research mentor on the project.

Other members of the research team include Kathleen Marble, MSN, RNC-NIC, a RNICU Nurse expert and the Director of Women's and Children's Services at Sparrow; Sarah Collins, BSN, RNC-NIC, the Nurse Manager and Educator for the RNICU at Sparrow; and Jonathan Watt, an advanced Biomedical Technician for Sparrow. Additionally, Wenjiang Fu, Associate Professor of Biostatistics, is consulting on the project.

The Center for Innovation and Research, created as a major joint initiative between Sparrow and MSU, aims to seek new projects to continuously improve care and deliver patient-centered, evidence-based best practice care to individuals who receive care at Sparrow.

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Shelia Cotten Named Trifecta Director & CFIR Interim Dir.

Posted on: July 22, 2014

Shelia Cotten main 2Shelia Cotten, Professor of Media and Information, has been named the first Director of Trifecta as well as Interim Director of the MSU-Sparrow Center for Innovation and Research (CFIR). As Director of Trifecta, Cotten will lead the Trifecta Intellectual Leaders (TIL), a group of faculty members leading the effort. She also will guide efforts to expand the reach and impact of Trifecta.

The Trifecta initiative connects researchers in three MSU colleges - Communication Arts and Sciences, Engineering, and Nursing - with the goal of maximizing research innovation and collaboration to advance the delivery of health services to underserved communities.

The three colleges have joined forces to focus on the use of new communication and engineering technologies to deliver nursing and health services.

The TIL consists of nine faculty members, three from each college, who are working toward maximizing the full potential for interdisciplinary research at MSU. Cotten, who came to MSU in fall 2013, is a founding member of the TIL.

"Shelia Cotten has a strong track record of leadership in working with interdisciplinary teams of researchers and students," said Maria Lapinski, CAS Associate Dean for Research. "We are excited to have her lead the Trifecta initiative."

At the MSU-Sparrow Center for Innovation and Research, Cotten will replace Barbara Given, University Distinguished Professor of Nursing, who was appointed Interim Director of the center when it was first created in 2012.

The Center for Innovation and Research was created through a formal partnership agreement between Sparrow Health System and Michigan State University. Together, MSU's intellectual capital and Sparrow's community-based clinicians work collaboratively to develop innovative approaches to high-quality, safe healthcare. The center aims to transform the delivery of healthcare through the implementation and evaluation of research that improves patient outcomes and lowers costs.

Cotten's own research focuses on technology use across the lifecourse and the social, educational and health impacts of that use. She conducts large-scale community based intervention studies designed to use technology to enhance various aspects of quality of life.

One of her more recent research projects examined the relationship between Internet use and depression of thousands of retired older Americans across six years and found that Internet use among these older adults reduced the chances of depression by more than 30 percent.

Cotten sees overlap between Trifecta and CFIR, "There is substantial synergy in the goals of these two organizations. By leading both these organizations, I believe we will be better poised to do even greater research and outreach to improve the lives of people in Michigan and around the world."

Cotten's appointments as Director of Trifecta and Interim Director for the CFIR start August 16, 2014.

Trifecta is holding a kickoff event for the 2014-2015 academic year on Tuesday, Aug. 26, from 10 a.m.  to 1 p.m. The event is focused on facilitating new research collaboration relationships. It will include brief presentations of Trifecta-related research interests, a speed-networking poster session, and a networking lunch. For more information, email trifecta@msu.edu.

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Casey O'Donnell: Is crowdsourcing the future of scientific research?

Posted on: May 21, 2014

Casey O'Donnell
Most scientists like to collaborate, at least with other scientists.

However, that scenario is starting to change thanks to something called crowdsourcing, a term first coined in 2006 that basically means groups of people coming together to solve a common problem.

The concept is now moving into the realm of science, where scientists and "normal" people are coming together to advance scientific endeavors. A Michigan State University scholar is looking at it a bit more closely to see if it truly is the future of research.

Casey O'Donnell, an assistant professor in the Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies and Media, has received a grant from the National Science Foundation of $156,000 to examine how collaborative online games are being used to solve problems in the world of biochemistry and molecular physics.

"The grant is really to try to unpack what is going on with crowdsourcing science and why games have become a part of the focus," he said.

O'Donnell and colleagues are looking at two specific games- Fold.It and EteRNA - that simulate protein and RNA folding. These games take the collective knowledge of a wide range of people - from Ph.D.s to serious gamers - to try to decipher the three-dimensional structure of a protein or nucleic acid.

"We're asking, 'what are the long-term consequences for science? What does it mean that science happens this way?'" he said. "Large numbers of players are collaborating to solve complex problems through games, and we need to understand the broader implications."

Generally speaking, O'Donnell said crowdsourcing could play a very integral role in the advancing of scientific research.

"Increasingly," he said, "we're seeing the rise of crowdsource science coincides with the drop in science funding."

Another advantage to crowdsourcing is that it makes science accessible to more people, allowing most everyone to be a part of the process.

"For a long time the results of science have been, for the most part, incomprehensible," O'Donnell said. "This subverts that because suddenly you have people that are part of the 'normal' population that are acting as advocates for and participants in science."

So is it helping to advance scientific research? Time will tell, O'Donnell said, but already some results are showing. For example, data gathered through the EteRNA game are being put to the test in a lab at Stanford University.

"Ultimately, for me, it's how technologies come to contain knowledge and produce new kinds of knowledge that neither the scientific community nor the gaming community could produce on their own," he said.

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Wash Awarded Prestigious NSF CAREER Grant

Posted on: March 11, 2014

Rick Walsh

Assistant Professor Rick Wash has received one of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) most prestigious and competitive awards for junior researchers - a Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) grant.

Wash, who has a joint appointment in the School of Journalism and the Media and Informationdepartment, was awarded a five-year, $489,678 CAREER grant to study online communities - how they are formed, how they shape expectations about the future of the community, how they co-evolve with the community over time, and how they form a critical mass that is essential for successful work and community survival.

"This grant will allow me to continue my work understanding how people make reasoned decisions about their use of technology and will allow me to continue discovering more about how groups function online," Wash said. "It will help me to explore in detail how online groups develop, how people decide whether they should participate in these groups, and whether they should keep participating once they have joined."

CAREER awards recognize promising faculty in the early stages of their career who exemplify the role of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research.

Wash's research, titled "Mental Models and Critical Mass: Shaping the Success of Online Communities," will help in designing, managing and participating in many kinds of online communities and will contribute to information, cognitive and social sciences education.

"One of the most important and valuable features of the Internet is that people can get together in groups to discuss interesting topics and work together. However, creating and sustaining these online communities is really difficult; most fail to generate much interest and die before they get really interesting," Wash said. "The goal of my research is to understand how people make reasoned decisions about their use of technology. I hope to use this understanding of people's decision-making process to design better tools and techniques for helping people make good decisions and for encouraging participation and support of online groups."

As part of the study, a unique, cross-disciplinary education program will be created to train students to use this research to build special-purpose online communities. A joint class will be offered beginning this fall that links the School of Journalism with the Media and Informationdepartment. The class will form cross-disciplinary teams that will spend a semester creating and growing an online community.

"This will represent a new type of education in journalism that will bring students into new, community-driven methods of doing journalism, based more on curating content and facilitating discussion than on original, unidirectional reporting," Wash said.

Students in the class will be taught to apply social science and computer science research for real-world applications and how to work on collaborative, cross-disciplinary teams that include both technical and creative people as well as topic experts.

"I am hoping that students come away from this class understanding the large variety of different ways that people can talk together and work together on the Internet, understand both the technical and the social challenges of doing so, and be able to address those challenges and build online communities that are sustained and valuable," Wash said.

Wash is one of the primary investigators in the Behavior, Information and Technology (BIT) Lab, a group of social science and technology researchers in the College of Communication Arts and Sciences.

The grant will support at least one Ph.D. student for five years and a number of undergraduate or master student research assistants. It also will help support the BITLab and the research being produced there.

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University Honors TISM Faculty LaRose and Peng

Posted on: February 11, 2014

tism-faculty-awardTwo Media and Informationfaculty members were awarded two of the most prestigious faculty honors presented by Michigan State University.

Our congratulations go out to Professor Robert LaRose, who won the W. J. Beal Outstanding Faculty Award, and Associate Professor Wei Peng, recipient of the Teacher-Scholar Award. LaRose and Peng received their awards today at the All-University Awards Convocation at the Wharton Center.

Robert LaRose

An accomplished researcher and painter, LaRose has contributed extensively to research, teaching, outreach and administration during his 26 years at MSU.

"Professor LaRose is a prolific scholar whose work has had a profound impact on the discipline," Johannes Bauer, Chair of the Media and Informationdepartment, said in his nomination letter.

From his early studies of the social effects of telephonic communications to his more recent work examining the social and psychological impacts of new media, mobile communication, the Internet and broadband connectivity, LaRose has made major contributions that have led to new paths of inquiry.

Bob LaRoseHis most visible and impactful contribution is his development of a novel theory of media habits, published in Communications Theory in 2010. This research was honored with several prestigious prizes and has led to numerous national and international speaking invitations. It also was recognized by the leading international professional association, the International Communications Association (ICA), as the best journal article in the field in 2010.

According to data from Google Scholar, LaRose's research has been cited more than 4,200 times.

He also has made many contributions to graduate and undergraduate education as well, including pioneering efforts in online teaching.

"Professor LaRose is known as a challenging yet dedicated and caring teacher. He has played a core role in teaching social scientific methods to many cohorts of graduate students," Bauer stated in his nomination. "As a tireless mentor of doctoral students, he has helped lay the foundations of many successful academic careers. This is evidenced by numerous co-authored articles and book chapters but also the informal networks of individuals who were touched by his passion for pushing the edges of knowledge and seeking a deeper understanding of communications technologies and their social impacts."

As for his contributions to undergraduate education, LaRose re-conceptualized the approach made to teaching introductory courses and was one of the promoters of a fundamental revision of the 100-level service courses on the information society. As part of this project, he co-authored the introductory textbook "Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture and Technology," which is used across the nation to introduce students to media and information technologies and their effects.

The William J. Beal Outstanding Faculty Awards (formerly the Distinguished Faculty Awards) are made each year to faculty members for outstanding service to the university. Nominations are based on teaching; advising; research; publications; art exhibitions; concert performances; committee work; public service including extension, continuing education and work with government agencies; or a combination of these activities.

Wei Peng

Peng is a star in her field who integrates teaching and research in exemplary ways. She employs technological tools to enable engaged and active learning. Her research on game-like approaches to increase engagement and motivation directly informs her teaching.

In her classes, she seeks to actively engage students, providing them with collaborative learning opportunities that require critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and application of theory. In her mentoring of graduate students, her firm yet open-minded research guidance has benefited 27 doctoral and 16 master's-level students.

Wei PengPeng has maintained an active research agenda that has generated numerous publications, many of which have appeared in the leading journals of her field. Her innovative research, often integrating game design and experiments, has won national awards and is frequently cited by her peers.

She is the principal investigator of a nationally funded grant that studies the efficacy of active video games for physical activity promotion. As an expert in the areas of video game effects and games for health, her advice is frequently sought by journal editors and federal funding agencies.

"The intelligence, talent and commitment to hard work that are the foundations for her rise within her field have similarly been deployed to great effect in the classroom and in her contributions to department and university governance, as well as in service to her profession and the larger community," Bauer said in his nomination letter.

Peng, in her own words, is "an advocate of student-centered active learning and team-based collaborative learning inside and outside the classroom." She employs technological tools to enable such learning.

Since joining the Media and Informationdepartment in 2006, Peng has always been among the first faculty to adopt, seek training, and experiment with new instructional technologies.

Recognizing the best teachers who have served at MSU for seven years or less, Teacher-Scholar Awards are presented each year to six tenure system faculty members from the ranks of assistant professor and associate professor who early in their careers have earned the respect of students and colleagues for their devotion to and skill in teaching.

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